Au 1er mars 2016 on comptait 35 973 communes, dont 35 861 en métropole. The expression "intercommunality" (intercommunalité) denotes several forms of cooperation between communes. In Italy, the median area of communes (comuni) is 22 km2 (8.5 sq mi); in Belgium it is 40 km2 (15 sq mi); in Spain it is 35 km2 (14 sq mi); and in Germany, the majority of Länder have communes (Gemeinden) with a median area above 15 km2 (5.8 sq mi). Communes vary widely in size and area, from large sprawling cities with millions of inhabitants like Paris, to small hamlets with only a handful of inhabitants. Switzerland and the Länder of Rhineland-Palatinate, Schleswig-Holstein, and Thuringia in Germany were the only places in Europe where the communes had a smaller median area than in France. The biggest changes occurred in 1831, when the French Parliament re-established the principle of the election of municipal councils, and in 1837 when French communes were given legal "personality," being now considered legal entities with legal capacity. Metropolitan France consists of 35,228 communes at the beginning of 2018. By 1837 that situation was judged impractical, as mayors and municipal councils could not be parties in courts. The Jacobin revolutionaries were afraid of independent local powers, which they saw as conservative and opposed to the revolution, and so they favored a powerful central state. Parishes lacked the municipal structures of post-Revolution communes. These abrupt changes profoundly alienated devout Catholics, and France soon was plunged into the throes of civil war, with the fervently religious regions of western France at its center. Terri toires-fr.fr. Paris in fact was one of the very few communes of France whose limits were extended to take into account the expansion of the urbanized area. The two communes in the French Republic with the longest names (38 letters): Three digits (department or collectivity) and two digits (commune) for the, This page was last edited on 29 December 2020, at 16:42. A parish was essentially a church, the houses around it (known as the village), and the cultivated land around the village. 500 715 habitants. In recent years it has become increasingly common for communes to band together in intercommunal consortia for the provision of such services as refuse collection and water supply. What the median population tells us is that the vast majority of the French communes only have a few hundred inhabitants; but there are also a small number of communes within much higher populations. Most of the communes in Alsace, along with those in other regions of France, have rejected the central government's calls for mergers and rationalization. Other examples of retained names in the languages once spoken, or still spoken, on French territory: INSEE (Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques) gives numerical indexing codes to various entities in France, notably the communes (which do not coincide with postcodes). Foundation for Intentional Community (FIC) is a registered 501(c)(3) non-profit organization. In all other French communes, the municipal police are under the mayor's supervision. Annuaire des villes et mairies de France. Napoleon also abolished the election of the municipal councils, which now were chosen by the prefect, the local representative of the central government. Therefore, when they created the communes, they deprived them of any legal "personality" (as they did with the départements), with only the central state having legal "personality." In Toulouse, on top of there being six intercommunal structures, the main community of Toulouse and its suburbs is only a community of agglomeration, although Toulouse is large enough to create an Urban Community according to the law. Le tableau suivant donne la liste des communes, en précisant leur code Insee, leur code postal principal, leur arrondissement, leur canton, leur appartenance aux principales structures intercommunales, leur superficie et leur population, d'après les chiffres de l'Insee issus du recensement 2017 [Note 1], [2]. French kings often prided themselves on ruling over a "realm of 100,000 steeples". Since the Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts of 1539 by Francis I, the priest in charge of the parish was also required to record baptisms, marriages, and burials. We can help you visit any town, village or region of France... ① Ideas & inspiration [7] In comparison, the number of communes in Alsace was only reduced from 945 in 1971[8][9] (just before the Marcellin law aimed at encouraging French communes to merge with each other was passed, see Current debate section below) to 904 in January 2007. Au 1 er janvier 2019, la France, y compris Mayotte, compte 34 970 communes.Au 1 er janvier 2017, 66 524 000 habitants vivent en France hors Mayotte. In areas where languages other than French are or were spoken, most place-names have been translated into a French spelling and pronunciation, such as Dunkerque (Duinkerke in Dutch), Toulouse (Tolosa in Occitan), Strasbourg (Straßburg in German), Perpignan (Perpinyà in Catalan), and many place names derived from Gaulish or Latin. Lyon Département : Rhône (Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes). Liste des 1707 communes de Franche-Comté, avec leur intercommunalités, leur canton, leur bassin de vie, leur code postal, population 2020. Trouvez les coordonnées d'une mairie pour vos démarches administratives, ou alors le plan d'une ville grâce à Communes.com. As for Paris, no intercommunal structure has emerged there, the suburbs of Paris fearing the concept of a "Greater Paris," and so disunity still is the rule in the metropolitan area, with the suburbs of Paris creating many different intercommunal structures all without the city. ③ Explore by region Priests were forced to surrender their centuries-old baptism, marriage, and burial books, which were deposited in the mairies. Liste des communes. (2) Within the current extent of overseas France, which has remained unchanged since the independence of the New Hebrides in 1980. In some urban areas like Marseille there exist four distinct intercommunal structures! There are about 36,000 communes in total across the country. Thus, in Europe, only Switzerland has as high a density of communes as France, and even there an extensive merger movement has started in the last 10 years. Except for these tasks, villages were left to handle other issues as they pleased. Again this is a very small number, and here France stands absolutely apart in Europe, with the lowest communes' median population of all the European countries (communes in Switzerland or Rhineland-Palatinate may have a smaller surface area, as mentioned above, but they are more populated). 86.7 percent of the population of metropolitan France. Usually, one contained only a building committee (conseil de fabrique), made up of villagers, which managed the buildings of the parish church, the churchyard, and the other numerous church estates and properties, and sometimes also provided help for the poor, or even administered parish hospitals or schools. Vous trouverez ici la liste de toutes les communes de France classées par département. 855 393 habitants. Le tableau suivant donne la liste des communes, en précisant leur code Insee, leur code postal principal, leur arrondissement, leur canton, leur appartenance aux principales structures intercommunales, leur superficie et leur population, d'après les chiffres de l'Insee issus du recensement 2017 [Note 1], [3]. Les trois plus importantes communes, Paris, Lyon et Marseille, ont un statut particulier vis… The most extreme example of this is Paris, where the urbanized area sprawls over 396 communes. This uniformity of status is a legacy of the French Revolution, which wanted to do away with the local idiosyncrasies and tremendous differences of status that existed in the kingdom of France. Second, the United States, with a territory fourteen times larger than that of the French Republic, and nearly five times its population, had 35,937 incorporated municipalities and townships at the 2002 Census of Governments, fewer than that of the French Republic. It would take Napoleon I to re-establish peace in France, stabilize the new administrative system, and make it generally accepted by the population. In the state of Baden-Württemberg, the number of Gemeinden or communities was reduced from 3,378 in 1968[6] to 1,108 in September 2007. La ville la plus riche de France de moins de 20.000 habitants est Marne la Coquette (81 746 € par ménage) Voici dans l'ordre alphabétique la liste des villes françaises métropolitaines. Le nombre de communes en France, est en fréquente modification, généralement à la baisse, du fait des fusions et scissions de communes. French administrative divisions, however, have remained extremely rigid and unchanged. [2][3] This is a considerably higher total than that of any other European country, because French communes still largely reflect the division of France into villages or parishes at the time of the French Revolution. The complete code has eight digits and three spaces within, but there is a popular simplified code with five digits and no space within: Each commune has a municipal council (conseil municipal) compound of municipal councilors (conseillers municipaux). They usually group into the same commune several villages or towns, often with sizeable distances among them. Commune of France is the leader of the Syndicalist Internationale and maintains good relations with almost all socialist countries and major socialist movements (such as the CNT-FAI) around the world. Quelques villes de France. The United Kingdom has no exact equivalent, as communes resemble districts in urban areas, but are closer to parishes in rural areas where UK districts are much larger. These structures have been left untouched by the Chevènement law, and they are on the decline. La célèbre commune de MontCuq, popularisée dans les années 1970 grâce à un sketch de Pierre Bonte avec Daniel Prévost pour l'émission satirique Le Petit Rapporteur, ne fait plus partie de la liste officielle des communes françaises. In 1971 the Marcellin law offered support and money from the government to entice the communes to merge freely with each other, but the law had only a limited effect (only about 1,300 communes agreed to merge with others). On 14 December 1789, the National Assembly (Assemblée Nationale) passed a law creating the commune, designed to be the lowest level of administrative division in France, thus endorsing these independently created communes, but also creating communes of its own. [citation needed], One major often raised problem with intercommunality, is the fact that the intercommunal structures are not subject to directly election by the people, so it is the representatives of each individual commune that sit in the new structure. Administrative divisions of France; List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants; List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants (2006 census) List of communes in France (2008 version) List of submerged places in France Alsace has more than double the total number of municipalities of the Netherlands which, in spite of having a population nine times larger and a land area four times larger than Alsace, is divided into just 390 municipalities (gemeenten). Un même code postal peut correspondre à plusieurs communes, alors que le code INSEE est unique pour chaque commune. ), Alpes-de-Haute-Provence communes & places. It shows the distinctive nature of the French commune as a geo-political or administrative entity. All of these communes would have equal status, they would all have a mayor at their head, and a municipal council elected by the inhabitants of the commune. The communes are the fourth-level administrative divisions of France. Before the revolution, France's lowest level of administrative division was the parish (paroisse), and there were up to 60,000 of them in the kingdom. Marseille Département : Bouches-du-Rhône (Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur). Communes can leave the syndicate at any time. All communes have names, but not all named geographic areas or groups of people residing together are communes ("lieu dit" or "bourg"), the difference residing in the lack of administrative powers. [1] "Commune" in English has a historical bias, and implies an association with socialist political movements or philosophies, collectivist lifestyles, or particular history (after the rising of the Paris Commune, 1871, which could have more felicitously been called, in English, "the rising of the City of Paris"). Thus, they set out to establish administrative divisions that would be uniform across the country: the whole of France would be divided into départements, themselves divided into arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons, themselves divided into communes, no exceptions. Some say that, should government money transfers be stopped, many of these communities of communes would revert to their former status of syndicate, or simply completely disappear in places where there were no syndicates prior to the law. The Revolutionaries were inspired by Cartesian ideas as well as by the philosophy of the Enlightenment. Communes typically are based on pre-existing villages and facilitate local governance. Liste des villes de France au format JSON. Either search by alphabetical order or see the communes listed by department. Communes de france - Base des codes postaux Enrichissement du fichier fourni par la Poste avec les noms de régions, départements et commune en lettre … The Chevènement law tidied up all these practices, abolishing some structures and creating new ones. [13], These impressive results however may hide a murkier reality. There have long been calls in France for a massive merger of communes, including by such distinguished voices as the president of the Cour des Comptes (the central auditing administrative body in France). En poursuivant votre navigation sur ce site, vous acceptez l'utilisation de cookies afin de mémoriser vos liste de choix, votre panier d'achat et vous garantir la meilleure navigation possible. As of January 2015, there were 36,681 communes in France, 36,552 of them in metropolitan France and 129 of them overseas. The size of the municipal council, the method of electing the municipal council, the maximum allowable pay of the mayor and deputy mayors, and municipal campaign finance limits (among other features) all depend on the population echelon into which a particular commune falls. Civil marriages were established and started to be performed in the mairie with a ceremony not unlike the traditional one, with the mayor replacing the priest, and the name of the law replacing the name of God ("Au nom de la loi, je vous déclare unis par les liens du mariage."